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General Science For CSS

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General Science For CSS

(Physical Sciences, Biological Sciences,
Environmental Science, Food Science and
Information Technology)

(Contains all topics related with the chapters in these
sections according to the notification of FPSC)

 

Solved Subjective/ Short Questions, MCQs on the pattern of previous papers of FPSC
and Solved Papers of years 2016, 2017 and 2018

                                        &

Also, 100% included in the syllabi of other competitive examinations like PMS and PCS etc.

 

CONTENTS

SECTION I:
PHYSICAL SCIENCES
 

1.     CONSTITUENTS AND STRUCTURE                                  …     2

        INTRODUCTION                                                                 ...      2

          UNIVERSE                                                                                                 …       2

          GALAXY                                                                                                      …       6

          LIGHT YEAR                                                                                              …       6

          SOLAR SYSTEM AND ITS PLANETS                                                 …       6

          ASTRONOMICAL SYSTEM OF UNITS                                             …     11

        EXERCISE: EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS                              …   12

        SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS                    …   13

        MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS        …   17

2.     PROCESS OF NATURE                                                        …   21

        INTRODUCTION                                                                 …   21

          SOLAR ECLIPSE                                                                                      …     21

          LUNAR ECLIPSE                                                                                     …     21

          MOVEMENTS OF THE EARTH                                                          …     22

          ROTATION OF THE EARTH                                                                 …     22

          REVOLUTION OF THE EARTH                                                           …     22

          EQUINOXES                                                                                             …     23

          WEATHER VARIABLES                                                                          …     23

        EXERCISE: EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS                              …   26

          SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS                    …   27

        MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS        …   32

3.     NATURAL HAZARDS AND DISASTERS                            …   38

        INTRODUCTION                                                                 …   38

          EARTHQUAKE                                                                                         …     38

          VOLCANOES                                                                                            …     43

          TSUNAMI                                                                                                  …     47

          FLOODS                                                                                                     …     50

          AVALANCHE                                                                                            …     54

          CYCLONE                                                                                                  …     57

          TORNADO                                                                                                 …     58

          DROUGHT                                                                                                 …     59

          WILDFIRE                                                                                                  …     63

          URBAN FIRE                                                                                             …     65

          DISASTER RISK-MANAGEMENT                                                      …     66

        EXERCISE: EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS                              …   68

          SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS                    …   69

        MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS        …   77

4.     ENERGY RESOURCES                                                        …   82

        INTRODUCTION                                                                 …   82

          SOURCES OF ENERGY                                                                         …     82

          RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES                                                     …     82

          NON-RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY                                  …     89

          NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY CONSERVATION AND ITS SUSTAINABLE USE         …                                                                                                                       89

          MISCELLANEOUS RELEVANT TOPICS                            …   90

          EXERCISE: EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS                              …   92

        SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS                    …   93

        MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS        …   96

5.     ATOMIC STRUCTURE                                                         …   99

        INTRODUCTION                                                                 …   99

          SUB-ATOMIC PARTICLES                                                                    …     99

          ATOMIC NUMBER                                                                                 …   100

          NUCLEON NUMBER OR MASS NUMBER                                    …   101

          ARRANGEMENT OF ELECTRONS IN ATOMS                              …   101

          CHEMICAL BONDING                                                                         …   103

          RADIOACTIVITY                                                                                      …   106

          APPLICATIONS OF RADIOISOTOPES                                              …   107

          APPLICATIONS/ USES OF ALPHA RADIATION                            …   109

          APPLICATIONS/USES OF GAMMA-RADIATION                         …   109

          MISCELLANEOUS RELATED TOPICS                                             …   110

        EXERCISE: EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS                              … 111

        SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS                    … 112

        MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS        … 116

6.     MODERN MATERIALS/CHEMICALS                                … 124

        INTRODUCTION                                                                 … 124

          CERAMICS                                                                                                …   124

          PLASTICS                                                                                                   …   125

          SEMICONDUCTORS                                                                             …   127

          ANTIBIOTICS                                                                                           …   128

          VACCINES                                                                                                 …   131

          FERTILIZERS                                                                                            …   133

          MISCELLANEOUS RELATED TOPICS                                             …   136

        EXERCISE: EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS                              … 138

        SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS                    … 139

        MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS        … 141

SECTION II:
BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
 

7.     THE BASIS OF LIFE                                                            … 146

        INTRODUCTION                                                                 … 146

        A TYPICAL CELL’S STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF ORGANELLES    …  147

        EXERCISE: EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS                              … 152

        SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS                    … 152

        MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION WITH ANSWERS          … 157

8.     BIOMOLECULES                                                                 … 163

        INTRODUCTION                                                                 … 163

          WATER                                                                                                        …   164

          CARBOHYDRATES                                                                                  …   165

          PROTEINS                                                                                                 …   168

          LIPIDS                                                                                                         …   171

          ENZYMES                                                                                                  …   172

        EXERCISE: EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS                              … 175

        SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS                    … 176

        MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS        … 184

9.     PLANT AND ANIMAL KINGDOM                                      … 188

        INTRODUCTION                                                                 … 188

          PLANT KINGDOM                                                                                  …   188

          KINGDOM ANIMALIA                                                                          …   192

          RELATED MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS/ DEFINITIONS               …   200

        EXERCISE: EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS                              … 205

        SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS                    … 207

        MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS        … 223

10.   A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY               … 233

        INTRODUCTION                                                                 … 233

          DIGESTIVE SYSTEM                                                                              …   233

          RESPIRATORY SYSTEM                                                                        …   238

          ENDOCRINE GLANDS AND FUNCTIONS OF HORMONES   …   243

          SKELETAL SYSTEM                                                                               …   245

          CIRCULATORY SYSTEM                                                                       …   247

          THE CARDIAC CYCLE / SYSTOLIC AND DIASTOLIC PRESSURE    …   249

          CONTROL OF THE CARDIAC CYCLE                                               …   250

          CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS                                                      …   250

          TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES …        252

          BLOOD CELLS / CORPUSCLES                                                          …   253

          LYMPHATIC SYSTEM                                                                            …   257

          NERVOUS SYSTEM                                                                                …   257

          URINARY SYSTEM                                                                                  …   262

          MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM                                                      …   264

          FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM                                                 …   265

          STRUCTURE AND WORKING OF HUMAN EYE                           …   266

          HUMAN EAR / STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS                           …   268

          HUMAN SKIN                                                                                          …   269

          MISCELLANEOUS RELATED TOPICS                                             …   270

        EXERCISE: EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS                              … 271

        SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS                    … 273

        MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS        … 288

11.   COMMON DISEASES AND EPIDEMICS                          … 296

        INTRODUCTION                                                                 … 296

          POLIOMYELITIS                                                                                      …   296

          DIARRHEA                                                                                                 …   298

          MALARIA                                                                                                   …   298

          HEPATITIS                                                                                                 …   301

          DENGUE                                                                                                    …   302

        EXERCISE: EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS                              … 303

        SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERAS                 … 304

        MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS        … 308

12.   NEW MODEL CONCEPT OF PRODUCING BIO FUEL METHOD         …   312

        INTRODUCTION                                                                 … 312

          FIRST GENERATION BIOFUELS                                                       …   313

          SECOND GENERATION BIOFUELS                                                 …   314

          BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM DIFFERENT FOOD STOCKS   …   315

          THIRD GENERATION BIOFUELS                                                      …   315

        EXERCISE: EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS                              … 316

        SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS                    … 317

        MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS        … 319

SECTION III:
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

13.   ENVIRONMENT                                                                  … 323

        INTRODUCTION                                                                 … 323

          ATMOSPHERE                                                                                         …   323

          WATER CYCLE (HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE)                                     …   324

          MAJOR WATER COMPARTMENTS                                                   …   324

          ROCKS                                                                                                        …   329

          MINERALS                                                                                                …   332

          PLATE TECTONICS                                                                                …   333

        EXERCISE: EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS                              … 333

        SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS                    … 335

        MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS        … 340

14.   ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION                                             … 345

        INTRODUCTION                                                                 … 345

          TYPES OF AIR POLLUTANTS                                                              …   345

          REGIONAL AND GLOBAL AIR POLLUTION ISSUES                  …   349

          ACID RAIN                                                                                                 …   349

          OZONE DEPLETION                                                                              …   350

          GREENHOUSE EFFECT                                                                       …   352

          INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS ON AIR POLLUTION CONTROL … 353

        EXERCISE: EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS                              … 356

        SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS                    … 357

        MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS        … 360

15.   WATER POLLUTION                                                            … 363

          INTRODUCTION                                                                 … 363

          SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION                                                   …   363

          DRINKING WATER QUALITY AND STANDARDS                        …   367

        EXERCISE: EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS                              … 367

        SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS                    … 368

        MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS        … 373

16.   LAND POLLUTION                                                              … 376

        INTRODUCTION                                                                 … 376

          METHODS OF THE DISPOSAL OF WASTES                                  …   376

          TYPES OF WASTE                                                                                    …   379

          WASTE MANAGEMENT                                                                       …   380

          RELATED MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS                                             …   382

        EXERCISE: EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS                              … 383

        SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS                    … 384

        MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS        … 387

17.   ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES   … 389

        INTRODUCTION                                                                 … 389

          REMOTE SENSING                                                                                …   389

          APPLICATIONS OF REMOTE SENSING                                         …   391

          ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES      …   393

          GIS (GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM)                             …   395

          APPLICATIONS OF GIS                                                                         …   397

          ROLE OF GIS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCES                              …   397

        EXERCISE: EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS                              … 399

        SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS                    … 400

        MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS        … 404

18.   POPULATION PLANNING                                                  … 406

        INTRODUCTION                                                                 … 406

        ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF POPULATION GROWTH     …   406

          POPULATION PLANNING                                                                   …   407

          ADVANTAGES OF FAMILY PLANNING                                          …   408

        EXERCISE: EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS                              … 412

        SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS                    … 413

        MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS        … 415

SECTION IV:
FOOD SCIENCE

19.   CONCEPT OF BALANCED DIET                                        … 418

        INTRODUCTION                                                                 … 418

          VITAMINS                                                                                                 …   418

          CARBOHYDRATES                                                                                  …   421

          PROTEINS                                                                                                 …   422

          FATS AND OILS                                                                                       …   423

          MINERALS                                                                                                …   424

          FIBER                                                                                                          …   425

          MALNUTRITION AND RELATED PROBLEMS / DISEASES      …   425

        EXERCISE: EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS                              … 426

        SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS                    … 427

        MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS        … 431

20.   QUALITY OF FOOD                                                             … 434

        INTRODUCTION                                                                 … 434

        QUALITY OF PACKED AND FROZEN FOOD                                 …   435

          FOOD ADDITIVES                                                                                  …   437

          PRESERVATION OF FOOD                                                                  …   440

          FOOD PRESERVATIVES / IMPORTANCE OF FOOD PRESERVATIVES            …     440

        EXERCISE: EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS                              … 442

        SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS                    … 443

        MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS        … 445

21.   FOOD DETERIORATION AND ITS CONTROL                  … 448

        INTRODUCTION                                                                 … 448

        FOOD DETERIORATION                                                                      …   448

          ADULTERATION OF FOOD                                                                 …   449

          FOOD PRESERVATION                                                                         …   450

        EXERCISE: EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS                              … 451

        SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS                    … 452

        MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS        … 455

SECTION V:
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

22.   COMPUTER                                                                          … 459

        INTRODUCTION                                                                 … 459

          COMPUTER                                                                                              …   459

          HISTORY OF COMPUTER                                                                    …   460

          GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER                                                        …   461

          TYPES OF COMPUTERS                                                                       …   463

          CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS                                                 …   463

          COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER                                                        …   464

          HARDWARE                                                                                              …   464

          COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER / PARTS OF COMPUTER       …   465

          1. HARDWARE                                                                      … 465

          MEMORY / STORAGE UNIT                                                                …   467

          MEMORY REPRESENTATION                                                            …   470

          REGISTERS                                                                                               …   470

          CACHE MEMORY                                                                                   …   470

          CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (MICROPROCESSOR / PROCESSOR)  …        471

          OTHER HARDWARE COMPONENTS                                               …   471

          SYSTEM BUS                                                                                            …   472

        2. SOFTWARE                                                                       … 472

          NETWORKS AND NETWORKING                                                     …   474

          COMPONENTS OF DATA COMMUNICATION                            …   474

          DATA FLOW                                                                                              …   475

          CATEGORIES / TYPES OF COMPUTER NETWORK                     …   475

          PROTOCOL                                                                                                …   476

          STANDARDS IN NETWORKING                                                        …   477

          NETWORK TOPOLOGIES                                                                     …   477

          DATA AND SIGNALS                                                                             …   478

          NETWORK COMPONENTS                                                                 …   479

          CLIENT / SERVER                                                                                   …   480

          INTERNET                                                                                                 …   480

          INTERNET APPLICATIONS / SERVICES                                         …   481

          E-MAIL                                                                                                       …   482

          WEBSITES                                                                                                  …   483

          CONNECTING TO THE INTERNET                                                  …   483

          SEARCH ENGINES                                                                                 …   483

          INTERNET STANDARDS                                                                      …   483

          BUSINESS APPLICATIONS/ SOFTWARE                                         …   484

          SOCIAL NETWORKING MEDIA / WEBSITES                                 …   485

          ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE                                                              …   486

          INFORMATION SYSTEMS                                                                   …   492

        EXERCISE: EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS                              … 493

        SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS                    … 494

        MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS        … 505

23.   TELECOMMUNICATION                                                   … 509

        INTRODUCTION                                                                 … 509

          COMPONENTS OF A COMMUNICATION SYSTEM / TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM   …   509

          A TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORK MODEL                       …   510

          TELECOMMUNICATIONS MEDIA                                                   …   511

          WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES                                                              …   512

          MOBILE / CELLULAR COMMUNICATION                                    …   512

          SATELLITE COMMUNICATION                                                        …   514

          APPLICATIONS OF SATELLITES                                                       …   516

          GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM                                                      …   518

          OSI MODEL                                                                                              …   521

          TCP / IP                                                                                                       …   521

        EXERCISE: EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS                              … 522

        SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS                    … 523

        MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS        … 531

        COMMON SCIENTIFIC ABBREVIATIONS                       … 535

        Solved Paper, General Knowledge-I (General Science Portion) 2016     … 539

        Solved Paper, General Knowledge-I (General Science Portion) 2017     … 557

      Solved Paper, General Knowledge-I (General Science Portion) 2018 ...       572



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