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An Introduction to International Relationss

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(Introduction, Summary each Chapter, International Relations,
International Political Security, Economy and Institutions, Cold War,
Post-Cold War, Foreign Policies, South Asia, Weapons of Mass Destruction,
Contemporary Issues and Chapter-wise Questions with Answers and MCQ'S)

 

                     CONTENTS

PAPER - I

1.     Introduction to International Relations                                                                    …     2

          INTRODUCTION                                                                                       ...    2

          DEFINITION AND SCOPE OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS                                 ...    2

          NATURE OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS                                                      ...    3

          SCOPE OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS                                                       ...    3

          RELATIONS AT THE INTERNATIONAL LEVEL MEANS INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS  ...    5

          NATION-STATE SYSTEM                                                                          ...    6

          CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERN STATE SYSTEM                                           ...    7

          CLASSIFICATION OF STATES ON THE BASIS OF POWER                                 ...    8

          DECLINE OF MODERN STATE SYSTEM                                                         ...    8

          INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY                                                                        ...    8

          SUMMARY                                                                                            ...    10

2.     Theories and Approaches                                                                                          …   12

             INTRODUCTION                                                                                  ...   12

          CLASSICAL APPROACH: REALISM AND IDEALISM                                          ...   12

          SIX POINTS OF REALISM                                                                       ...    13

          WEAKNESSES OF MORGENTHAU’S REALIST THEORY                                    ...    15

          IDEALISM: IDEALISM IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS                                   ...   17

          IDEALISM VS. REALISM                                                                        ...       18

          ANALYTICAL AND BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVES CAUSES OF WAR AND STRATEGIES FOR PEACE                                                                                                 ...       19

          SYSTEM APPROACH IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS                ...       35

          NEO-REALISM                                                                                          ...       36

          NEO LIBERALISM                                                                                     ...       37

          POST-MODERNISM                                                                                 ...       40

          CRITICAL THEORY                                                                                   ...       42

          FEMINISM                                                                                                 ...       42

          CONSTRUCTIVISM                                                                                  ...       48

          THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CONSTRUCTIVISM AND REALISM        ...   48

          SUMMARY                                                                                                 ...       49

3.     International Political Security                                           …   51

             INTRODUCTION                                                                                       ...       51

          ELEMENTS OF NATIONAL POWER                                                     ...       53

          FORMS OF NATIONAL POWER                                                             ...       56

          BALANCE OF POWER                                                                               ...       57

          OBJECTS OF BALANCE OF POWER                                                      ...       59

          FOREIGN POLICY                                                                                     ...       62

          FOREIGN POLICY OBJECTIVES                                                            ...       63

          DETERMINANTS OF FOREIGN POLICY                                             ...       65

          DECISION MAKING THEORY                                                               ...       69

          HISTORY                                                                                                     ...       70

          DEFINITION AND TYPES                                                                       ...       73

          NATIONAL INTEREST                                                                             ...       79

          CRITERIA FOR DEFINING NATIONAL INTEREST                           ...       79

          SUMMARY                                                                                                 ...       82

4.     Strategic Approach to International Relations                  …   84

          INTRODUCTION                                                                                       ...       84

          TYPES OF WAR                                                                                          ...       85

          ASYMMETRIC WARFARE                                                                       ...       88

          STRATEGIC CULTURE: DETERMINANTS OF PAKISTANI STRATEGIC CULTURE          ...                                                                                                                       91

          DETERRENCE                                                                                            ...       96

          SUMMARY                                                                                                 ...     105

5.     International Political Economy                                         … 107

             INTRODUCTION                                                                                       ...     107

          THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY              ...     108

          ECONOMIC LIBERALISM                                                                       ...     110

          NEO-MARXISM                                                                                        ...     112

          THEORIES OF IMPERIALISM                                                                ...     113

          DEPENDENCE THEORY                                                                          ...     114

          CRITICISM                                                                                                 ...     114

          INTERDEPENDENDENCE THEORY                                                     ...     115

          SUMMARY                                                                                                 ...     116

6.     International Political Community                                     … 118

             INTRODUCTION                                                                                       ...     118

          NATIONALISM                                                                                         ...     118

          HISTORY                                                                                                     ...     119

          BENEFITS OF NATIONALISM                                                               ...     120

          PAKISTANI NATIONALISM                                                                   ...     122

          NATIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS IN PAKISTAN                                  ...     122

          INTERNATIONALISM                                                                             ...     125

          GLOBALIZATION                                                                                      ...     126

          REASONS FOR GLOBALISATION                                                         ...     129

          POSITIVE IMPACTS OF GLOBALISATION                                         ...     129

          NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF GLOBALISATION                                       ...     130

          SUMMARY                                                                                                 ...     130

7.     Approaches to Peace                                                            … 132

             INTRODUCTION                                                                                       ...     132

          DIPLOMACY                                                                                               ...     132

          TYPES OF DIPLOMACY                                                                           ...     135

          LIMITATIONS ON DIPLOMACY                                                           ...     138

          INTERNATIONAL LAW                                                                            ...     139

          LIMITATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW                                         ...     140

          THE RELEVANCE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW IN PROMOTING GLOBAL PEACE AND SECURITY                                                                                                   ...     142

          ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT                                            ...     144

          HISTORY                                                                                                     ...     146

          DISARMAMENT                                                                                       ...     148

          HINDRANCES IN THE WAY OF DISARMAMENT                            ...     149

          NUCLEAR NON PROLIFERATION REGIME                                       ...     150

          SUMMARY                                                                                                 ...     152

8.     International Political Institutions                                     … 154

          INTRODUCTION                                                                                       ...     154

          UNITED NATIONS                                                                                   ...     154

          AIMS AND ACTIVITIES                                                                          ...     160

          REFORMING THE UN                                                                              ...     164

          ACHIEVEMENTS OF UNO                                                                     ...     168

          CRITICISM OF THE UNITED NATIONS                                             ...     170

          THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF)                            ...     173

          WORLD BANK                                                                                            ...     179

          INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE (ICJ)                                     ...     182

          SUMMARY                                                                                                 ...     188

PART : II 

1.     International Relations Between Two Great Wars             … 191

          INTRODUCTION                                                                                       ...     191

          INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS BETWEEN TWO GREAT WARS     ...     191

          RUSSIAN REVOLUTION                                                                         ...     193

          CAUSES OF RUSSIAN REVOLUTION                                                  ...     193

          THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION AND THE WORLD                              ...     197

          GLOBAL IMPACT OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION                        ...     197

          SIGNIFICANCE OF RUSSIAN REVOLUTION                                     ...     198

          FASCISM                                                                                                    ...     200

          DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES BETWEEN ITALIAN FASCISM AND NAZISM        ...                                                                                                                       201

          CHARACTERISTICS OF FASCISM                                                        ...     203

          IMPORTANCE OF FASCISM                                                                  ...     205

          DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FASCISM AND MARXISM                     ...     205

          FASCIST FOREIGN POLICY IN TOTALITARIANISM IN EUROPE ...     206

          LEAGUE OF NATIONS                                                                             ...     207

          CAUSES OF ITS FAILURE                                                                       ...     208

          WORLD WAR 2                                                                                            ...     209

          CAUSES                                                                                                       ...     210

          CASUALTIES, CIVILIAN IMPACT, AND ATROCITIES                     ...     213

          SUMMARY                                                                                                 ...     214

2.     Cold War                                                                               … 216

          INTRODUCTION                                                                                       ...     216

          END OF COLD WAR                                                                                  ...     216

          WHAT WERE THE CAUSES OF THE COLD WAR?                             ...     217

          DECOLONIZATION                                                                                  ...     218

          DECOLONIZATION IN ASIA                                                                  ...     219

          INDIVIDUAL COUNTRIES                                                                      ...     220

          DECOLONIZATION OF AFRICA                                                            ...     221

          ECONOMIC EFFECTS                                                                              ...     222

          EFFECTS ON THE FORMER COLONIES                                             ...     223

          RISE OF USA AND SOVIET UNION                                                     ...     223

          TWO SUPER-POWERS: THE U.S. AND THE SOVIET UNION         ...     226

          ERA OF TIGHT BIPOLARITY                                                                   ...     226

          ADVANTAGES OF BIPOLARITY                                                            ...     228

          DISADVANTAGES OF BIPOLARITY                                                     ...     229

          DÉTENTE AND LOOSE BIPOLARITY                                                   ...     230

          END OF DÉTENTE                                                                                    ...     234

          REVIVAL OF COLD WAR                                                                          ...     234

          SUMMARY                                                                                                 ...     245

3.     Post-Cold War                                                                       … 247

             INTRODUCTION                                                                                       ...     247

          BACKGROUND                                                                                          ...     247

          POST-COLD WAR FOREIGN POLICY                                                    ...     249

          NATO IN THE POST-COLD WAR ERA                                                  ...     250

          CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS                                                                    ...     252

          TERRORISM                                                                                               ...     257

          GLOBALIZATION                                                                                      ...     264

          SIGNS OF GLOBALIZATION                                                                  ...     267

          REGIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION (REGIONALISM)             ...     267

          UNIPOLARITY                                                                                            ...     269

          NEW WORLD ORDER                                                                                ...     270

          SUMMARY                                                                                                 ...     272

4.     International and Regional Organizations                        … 274

          INTRODUCTION                                                                                       ...     274

          LEAGUE OF NATIONS                                                                             ...     274

          CAUSES OF FAILURE                                                                               ...     281

          UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION                                                   ...     281

          PRINCIPAL ORGANS                                                                                ...     283

          UNITED NATIONS: OBJECTIVES AND ROLES OF UNITED NATIONS ...   286

          REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS                                                               ...     288

          ASSOCIATION OF SOUTH-EAST ASIAN NATIONS (ASEAN)       ...     289

          NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT (NAFTA)             ...     291

          SOUTH ASIAN ASSOCIATION FOR REGIONAL COOPERATION (SAARC)            ...                                                                                                                       293

          SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANIZATION (SCO)                      ...     295

          ORGANISATION OF ISLAMIC COOPERATION (OIC)                      ...     297

          NOTABLE MEETINGS                                                                             ...     300

          STRUCTURE AND ORGANISATION                                                    ..      301

          ECONOMIC COOPERATION ORGANIZATION                                 ...     302

          WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO): OBJECTIVES
AND FUNCTIONS                                                                                     ...     304

          REFORM OF THE UNITED NATIONS                                                  ...     307

          REFORMS                                                                                                   ...     308

          PAKISTAN'S POSITION TOWARDS UN REFORMS                          ...     310

          REFORMS IN WORLD BANK
WHY THE WORLD BANK MUST BE REFORMED AND
HOW WE CAN DO IT                                                                                ...     312

          REFORMS IN IMF                                                                                     ...     314

          SUMMARY                                                                                                 ...     315 

5.     Foreign Policies of Selected Countries                              … 317

          INTRODUCTION                                                                                       ...     317

          FOREIGN POLICY OF USA                                                                      ...     317

          AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY CONCERNS                                       ...     318

          UNITED STATES–EUROPEAN UNION RELATIONS                        ...     321

          RUSSIA–UNITED STATES RELATIONS                                              ...     322

          USA-CHINA RELATIONS                                                                        ...     329

          UNITED STATES FOREIGN POLICY IN THE MIDDLE EAST         ...     335

          SOUTH ASIAN FOREIGN POLICY OF THE BARACK OBAMA ADMINISTRATION          ...                                                                                                                       339

          FOREIGN POLICY OF RUSSIA                                                               ...     346

          FOREIGN POLICY OF VLADIMIR PUTIN                                            ...     349

          FOREIGN POLICY OF CHINA                                                                 ...     354

          RELATIONS BY REGION AND COUNTRY                                           ...     356

          CENTRAL ASIA                                                                                          ..      359

          ARAB WORLD                                                                                             ...     359

          SOUTH ASIA                                                                                              ...     361

          CHINA, RELATIONS WITH RUSSIA                                                     ...     364

          FOREIGN POLICY OF UK                                                                        ...     367

          UNITED STATES                                                                                       ...     372

          FOREIGN POLICY OF PAKISTAN                                                          ...     377

          CHINA–PAKISTAN RELATIONS                                                           ...     383

          INDIA’S FIVE FOREIGN POLICY GOALS GREAT STRIDES, STEEP CHALLENGES          ...                                                                                                                       389

          INDIA–PAKISTAN RELATIONS                                                             ...     396

          U.S. PAKISTAN RELATIONS                                                                  ...     399

          FOREIGN POLICY OF EUROPEAN UNION                                         ...     401

          EU AND USA                                                                                              ...     401

          SUMMARY                                                                                                 ...     402

6.     South Asia                                                                             … 404

          INTRODUCTION                                                                                       ...     404

          PAK-INDIA PEACE PROCESS: AN APPRAISAL                                  ...     404

          INDIA AND PAKISTAN: OVERVIEW OF AGREEMENTS
AND ACCORDS THE INDUS WATER TREATY 1960                          ...     409

          COMPOSITE DIALOGUE                                                                         ...     411

          SIR CREEK                                                                                                  ...     411

          VISA AND PEOPLE TO PEOPLE CONTACTS                                      ...     415

          ROLE OF CIVIL SOCIETY IN PEACE PROCESS BETWEEN
INDIA AND PAKISTAN                                                                           ...     416

          AFGHANISTAN: COLD WAR THEATER                                              ...     417

          SOVIET INVASION MUJAHIDEEN                                                      ...     418

          GENEVA ACCORD                                                                                    ...     419

          POST COLD WAR SITUATION                                                               ...     421

          AL-QAEDA AND 9/11                                                                                ...     426

          OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM                                                    ...     429

          THE BONN PROCESS                                                                              ...     432

          SUMMARY                                                                                                 ...     434

7.     Weapons of Mass Destruction                                             ...  436

          INTRODUCTION                                                                                       ...     436

          PROLIFERATION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS                                        ...     436

          NUCLEAR WEAPON STATES: PROGRAMS AND POSTURES         ...     437

          STATES OF IMMEDIATE PROLIFERATION CONCERN                  ...     439

          INDIA PAKISTAN NUCLEAR DOCTRINE                                           ...     440

          NUCLEAR NON PROLIFERATION REGIME                                       ...     446

          NUCLEAR NON PROLIFERATION TREATY (NPT)                             ...     447

          THE NUCLEAR SUPPLIERS GROUP (NSG)                                         ...     456

          PARTIAL TEST BAN TREATY (PTBT)                                                    ...     459

          COMPREHENSIVE TEST BAN TREATY                                               ...     461

          FISSILE MATERIAL CUT OFF TREATY (FMCT)                                 ...     463

          CHALLENGES OF NON PROLIFERATION                                          ...     465

          NUCLEAR CIVIL DEAL REGIME                                                           ...     468

          RATIONALE BEHIND THE AGREEMENT                                           ...     470

          MISSILE DEFENCE SYSTEM AND THEIR IMPACT
ON GLOBAL STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT                                        ...     472

          NATO MISSILE DEFENCE SYSTEM                                                    ...     472

          IMPACT ON GLOBAL STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT                       ...     474

          MILITARIZATION AND WEAPONIZATION OF OUTER SPACE     ...     475

          WEAPONIZATION OF SPACE                                                                ...     476

          SUMMARY                                                                                                 ...     480

8.     Contemporary Issues                                                           ...  482

          INTRODUCTION                                                                                       ...     482

          INDIAN OCEAN                                                                                        ...     482

          GEOPOLITICS OF THE INDIAN OCEAN                                             ...     483

          MAJOR POWERS INTERESTS IN INDIAN OCEAN                           ...     485

          TRADE AND TRANSPORTATION IN INDIAN OCEAN                    ...     487

          PACIFIC OCEAN                                                                                        ...     488

          TRADE AND TRANSPORTATION IN PACIFIC OCEAN                    ...     489

          KASHMIR ISSUE                                                                                      ...     490

          2016 KASHMIR UNREST                                                                         ...     492

          PALESTINE PROBLEM                                                                             ...     509

          SUMMARY                                                                                                 ...     511

CHAPTER-WISE QUESTIONS WITH SHORT ANSWERS AND MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS 

1.       Part - I: Chapter-wise Questions with Answers and MCQ'S                …    514

2.         Part - II: Chapter-wise Questions with Answers and MCQ's     …        566


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